Within the eco-balance-study the European market has been regarded. The calculations are based on a crate-fillings-weight of 15kg and a goods-value per crate of 15€. The calculation of the packaging damage rate is a seasonal study in which hardly any citrus-fruit transports (with a high crate-filling-weight) are part of. Accordingly the damage rate calculations are based on an average crate-filling-weight of 8 kg and a goods-value per crate of 15€. As the packaging damages are evaluated per crate the two studies can be combined by specifying the amount of moved shipments as “input”. A calculation via varying goods-values or crate-filling-weights can’t be worked out.

Pollution categories

Global Warming Potential – "Greenhouse Effect/ Carbon Footprint"

The mechanism of the greenhouse effect can be observed on a small scale, as the name suggests, in a greenhouse. These effects are also occurring on a global scale. The occuring short-wave radiation from the sun comes into contact with the earth’s surface and is partly absorbed (leading to direct warming) and partly reflected as infrared radiation. The reflected part is absorbed by so-called greenhouse gases in the troposphere and is re-radiated in all directions, including back to earth. This results in a warming effect at the earth’s surface.

In addition to the natural mechanism, the greenhouse effect is enhanced by human activities. Greenhouse gases that are considered to be caused, or increased, anthropogenically are, for example, carbon dioxide, methane and CFCs. Figure A 1 shows the main processes of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. An analysis of the greenhouse effect should consider the possible long term global effects.

Figure A 1:	Greenhouse effect (Kreissig & Kümmel 1999)

The global warming potential is calculated in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-Eq.). This means that the greenhouse potential of an emission is given in relation to CO2 Since the residence time of the gases in the atmosphere is incorporated into the calculation, a time range for the assessment must also be specified. A period of 100 years is customary.

Eutrophication Potential – "Overfertilization"

Eutrophication is the enrichment of nutrients in a certain place. Eutrophication can be aquatic or terrestrial. Air pollutants, waste water and fertilization in agriculture all contribute to eutrophication.

The result in water is an accelerated algae growth, which in turn, prevents sunlight from reaching the lower depths. This leads to a decrease in photosynthesis and less oxygen production. In addition, oxygen is needed for the decomposition of dead algae. Both effects cause a decreased oxygen concentration in the water, which can eventually lead to fish dying and to anaerobic decomposition (decomposition without the presence of oxygen). Hydrogen sulphide and methane are thereby produced. This can lead, among others, to the destruction of the eco-system.

On eutrophicated soils, an increased susceptibility of plants to diseases and pests is often observed, as is a degradation of plant stability. If the eutrophication level exceeds the amounts of nitrogen necessary for a maximum harvest, it can lead to an enrichment of nitrate. This can cause, by means of leaching, increased nitrate content in groundwater. Nitrate also ends up in drinking water.

Figure A 2: Eutrophication Potential (Kreissig & Kümmel 1999)

Nitrate at low levels is harmless from a toxicological point of view. However, nitrite, a reaction product of nitrate, is toxic to humans. The causes of eutrophication are displayed in Figure A 2. The eutrophication potential is calculated in phosphate equivalents (PO4 Eq). As with acidification potential, it’s important to remember that the effects of eutrophication potential differ regionally.

Ozone Depletion Potential - "Ozone Hole"

Ozone is created in the stratosphere by the disassociation of oxygen atoms that are exposed to short wave UV light. This leads to the formation of the so-called ozone layer in the stratosphere (15 50 km high). About 10 % of this ozone reaches the troposphere through mixing processes. In spite of its minimal concentration, the ozone layer is essential for life on earth. Ozone absorbs the short wave UV radiation and releases it in longer wavelengths. As a result, only a small part of the UV radiation reaches the earth.

Anthropogenic emissions deplete ozone. This is well-known from reports on the hole in the ozone layer. The hole is currently confined to the region above Antarctica, however another ozone depletion can be identified, albeit not to the same extent, over the mid-latitudes (e.g. Europe). The substances which have a depleting effect on the ozone can essentially be divided into two groups; the fluorine-chlorine-hydrocarbons (CFCs) and the nitrogen oxides (NOX). Figure A 3 depicts the procedure of ozone depletion.

One effect of ozone depletion is the warming of the earth's surface. The sensitivity of humans, animals and plants to UV B and UV A radiation is of particular importance. Possible effects are changes in growth or a decrease in harvest crops (disruption of photosynthesis), indications of tumors (skin cancer and eye diseases) and decrease of sea plankton, which would strongly affect the food chain. In calculating the ozone depletion potential, the anthropogenically released halogenated hydrocarbons, which can destroy many ozone molecules, are recorded first. The so-called Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) results from the calculation of the potential of different ozone relevant substances.

Figure A 3: Ozone Depletion Potential (Kreissig & Kümmel 1999)

This is done by calculating, first of all, a scenario for a fixed quantity of emissions of a CFC reference (CFC 11). CFC 11 is also known as R11, which means Refrigerant 11. This results in an equilibrium state of total ozone reduction. The same scenario is considered for each substance under study whereby CFC 11 is replaced by the quantity of the substance. This leads to the ozone depletion potential for each respective substance, which is given in CFC 11 equivalents. An evaluation of the ozone depletion potential should take into consideration the long term, global and partly irreversible effects.

Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential – "Summer Smog"

Despite playing a protective role in the stratosphere, at ground-level ozone is classified as a damaging trace gas. Photochemical ozone production in the troposphere, also known as summer smog, is suspected to damage vegetation and material. High concentrations of ozone are toxic to humans.

Radiation from the sun and the presence of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons incur complex chemical reactions, producing aggressive reaction products, one of which is ozone. Nitrogen oxides alone do not cause high ozone concentration levels.

Hydrocarbon emissions occur from incomplete combustion, in conjunction with petrol (storage, turnover, refuelling etc.) or from solvents. High concentrations of ozone arise when the temperature is high, humidity is low, when air is relatively static and when there are high concentrations of hydrocarbons. Because CO (mostly emitted from vehicles) reduces the accumulated ozone to CO2 and O2, high concentrations of ozone do not often occur near hydrocarbon emission sources. Higher ozone concentrations more commonly arise in areas of clean air, such as forests, where there is less CO (Figure A 4).

Figure A 4: Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (Kreissig & Kümmel 1999)

In Life Cycle Assessments, photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) is referred to in ethylene-equivalents (C2H4-Äq.). When analyzing, it’s important to remember that the actual ozone concentration is strongly influenced by the weather and by the characteristics of the local conditions.

Acidification Potential – "Acid Rain"

The acidification of soils and waters occurs predominantly through the transformation of air pollutants into acids. This leads to a decrease in the pH-value of rainwater and fog from 5.6 to 4 and below. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide and their respective acids (H2SO4 und HNO3) produce relevant contributions. This damages ecosystems, whereby forest dieback is the most well-known impact.

Acidification has direct and indirect damaging effects (such as nutrients being washed out of soils or an increased solubility of metals into soils). But even buildings and building materials can be damaged. Examples include metals and natural stones which are corroded or disintegrated at an increased rate.

When analysing acidification, it should be considered that although it is a global problem, the regional effects of acidification can vary. Figure A 5 displays the primary impact pathways of acidification.

Figure A 5:	Acidification Potential (Kreissig & Kümmel 1999)

The acidification potential is given in sulphur dioxide equivalents (SO2-Eq.). The acidification potential is described as the ability of certain substances to build and release H+-ions. Certain emissions can also be considered to have an acidification potential, if the given S-, N- and halogen atoms are set in proportion to the molecular mass of the emission. The reference substance is sulphur dioxide.